A wide variety of End-to-end Investment Management & Administration solutions exist that help the users thereof to effectively operate the traditional Investment Management Life Cycle, including Strategy & Planning, Trading, Monitoring, Investment Accounting and Reporting. Probably the most challenging aspect of this industry revolves around the availability of accurate, consistent and relevant data. A variety of providers have thus also established investment reference data solutions to address this issue. Due to the rapidly changing environment, volumes and complexities, some organisations further provide end-to-end back office services to clients to reduce their own exposure to the technology and information challenges experienced in the industry. In order to effectively manage their operations and to provide the information required internally and also externally to their 'clients' for regulatory reporting, investment managers typically have to rely on a combination of these different types of solutions.